Inadequate Dosages

Dosages must be adequate and maintained for symptom relief. Ascorbic acid is the only form recommended and used in Tower products.  (For example, a calcium ascorbate form would provide too much calcium at the dosages recommended by Linus Pauling and could contribute to arterial wall calcium deposits.  We have had reports of failure using calcium ascorbate.)

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 6,000 to 18,000 mg daily.  Pauling recommended 6,000 to 18,000 mg of pure ascorbic acid daily.  Generally, the higher the dosage of vitamin C the more rapid the response.  Bowel tolerance (See Vitamin C - Titrating to Tolerance) ranges from 4 to 20 grams daily.  Our experience is that as much as 8,000 mg may be required for six months to substantially lower total cholesterol.  Per Pauling's book, How to Live Longer and Feel Better (1986), it is acceptable to add some baking soda to make swallowing easier.  Keep in mind that drug store vitamin C contains additional additives that can be toxic at the levels that Pauling recommended.  Tower's Pauling therapy formulas contain no fillers, binders or preservatives and are completely safe at high levels.

Lysine 5,000 mg daily.  We know of one 70-year-old man whose 50% blockage was reversed on as little as 2,500 mg of lysine daily for one month, though on video Linus Pauling recommends supplementing with a minimum of 5 g to 6 g (5,000 mg to 6,000 mg) of lysine for advanced disease (2 jars).
"First and foremost, and I regret this perhaps was not emphasized enough in the book Stop America’s #1 Killer, heart patients must address all chronic dental toxicity, especially root canals and advanced periodontal disease.  A blow dryer on a stream of (toxic) water has no effect.  You stop the stream, and the dryer can finally take effect.

On the question of root canal toxicity, in our book we mention that of the more than 5,000 consecutive root canals extracted and tested in a laboratory, 100% were highly toxic.  The root canal procedure is fatally flawed and assures that the patient leaves the office with an infected tooth that only worsens over time.

I have seen a single root canal cause fulminantly progressive coronary disease, in spite of perfect supplementation.  Post-extraction, it stopped progressing and even began reversing almost immediately."

     — Thomas Levy in private correspondence
The following individual circumstances can cause the Pauling therapy to be less successful or fail in some cases:

THE PAULING THERAPY
DOES IT WORK FOR EVERYONE?

The Pauling Therapy
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Blockages of Greater Than 90%

There must be blood flow in order for the Pauling therapy to work. Great success is reported when blood flow is 50% or greater.  Less success is reported when blood flow is estimated at 10% of normal (90% blockage), and there is usually almost no success when the artery is 100% blocked.  However, use of the Pauling therapy in these cases is still recommended to address other arterial plaques that may be forming.
Medicated and Radiation-Type Stents

Many patients on the Pauling therapy already had bare metal stents implanted at the time they began to take vitamin C and lysine, and for years there were no reported problems.  In fact, almost every stent recipient reported "miraculous" results - until recently.

There has been a change in conventional cardiology to the use of "medicated" or "drug eluting" stents in the past decade or so. These newer, so-called "medicated" stents are coated with a chemotherapeutic agent that deadens or kills the inside of the artery. In theory, these stents with their radiation pellets that kill the artery in the area of the stent would seem to work against the Pauling therapy, in that Pauling's vitamin C/lysine therapy depends on the artery healing itself - properly. 

While these "medicated" stents and procedures interfere with artery healing, it has been our experience that undertaking Pauling's therapy can still have a beneficial effect for those with stents because high doses of vitamin C can help to control inflammation that may be present at the stented sites within the arteries.  Additionally, the use of the Pauling therapy in these cases is essential for addressing any other known or unknown areas of arterial plaque that may be forming and help the individual to avoid future stenting in those areas. 

In short, the key to using the Pauling therapy with medicated stents would seem to be increasing the dosage to at least the low therapeutic level or greater (6-9 grams or more of vitamin C and Lysine).
Diabetes/Sugar Elevations/Insulin Resistance

Pauling therapy users must keep blood sugar low and avoid simple carbohydrates for maximum effect of the Pauling therapy.

After more than a decade of great success with the Pauling therapy, we began getting reports of relapses in Type II diabetics. These individuals had great initial success but required angioplasty/stent and or heart bypass after a considerable period of time.  (In one case, I.V. Chelation therapy "worked wonders" for the individual who was again experiencing angina.)

Combining ideas from several different sources including Drs. John Ely and Sherry Lewin, there is strong evidence that even minimally elevated blood sugar "crowds" out vitamin C from entering cells and therefore more vitamin C must be taken by diabetics in order to realize absorption. This is called "Glucose-Ascorbate Antagonism (GAA)."  See The Diabetic Double Whammy - Reversing Diabetes Type II, Glucose-Ascorbate Antagonism, and their Impact on Reversing Heart Disease.

Vitamin C has an extremely short half-life, competes with glucose for insulin-mediated transport into cells, and is broken down faster in the gut in the presence of carbohydrates. Additionally, it is thought that a membrane disturbance in diabetics makes it even more difficult for vitamin C to enter cells.  (See Our Deadly Diabetes Deception.) The good news is that this cell membrane problem can be corrected by avoiding processed fats (trans fats and hydrogenated oils) and supplementing with virgin Omega 3/6 oils. As blood sugar is lowered, more vitamin C becomes available to cells.

Additionally, a new product on the market known as Cyclo-Z (formerly known as Gluco-Z), developed by Dr. M. K. Song, and presently available from Preventive Nutrient, has proven 100% effective in initial NIH-funded clinical trials through the VA Hospital in Los Angeles for significantly lowering blood glucose levels and maintaining normal glucose ranges.  The product is a patented compound using pharmaceutical grade ingredients that naturally help balance blood sugars and relieve insulin resistance in people with type 1, type 2 and pre-diabetes (insulin resistance syndrome).

The VA Studies indicate that zinc malabsorption syndrome is present in all individuals with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.  The Cyclo-Z product is able to overcome the common issues with inability to absorb zinc from typical supplements and to thereby have 100% effectiveness in relieving zinc malabsorption syndrome.  When zinc is absorbed and available in the body to perform its function of glucose control and insulin metabolization, blood glucose levels and insulin resistance are relieved.  All participants in the VA study maintained normal blood glucose ranges with Cyclo-Z.

R-alpha lipoic acid (ALA) also helps diabetics lower blood sugar and may be an important adjunct for people with both heart disease and Type II diabetes.

For a comprehensive discussion about diabetes, insulin resistance, and the role of insulin in the development of coronary artery disease, see Insulin and Its Metabolic Effects (e-mail address required).
Prescription Statins and Blood Thinners

Statin drugs prescribed for lowering cholesterol can cause cardiomyopathy.  Many heart medications make patients worse.  Specifically, the statin cholesterol-lowering drugs (e.g. Lipitor ® and Zocor®) are known to block the synthesis of Coenzyme Q10, leading to muscle myopathy and heart failure.  Higher dosages of the statin cholesterol-lowering drugs (80 mg) are increasing the cases of heart failure and cardiomyopathy.  We believe that this causes resistant angina pain - pain that is not eliminated by the Pauling vitamin C/lysine therapy.  However, use of the Pauling therapy in these cases is still recommended to address other arterial plaques that may be forming.

Blood Thinners (Coumadin/Warfarin/heparin).  Common blood thinners block vitamin K causing rapid calcification of soft tissues.  (See 150 Medline citations for a detailed description of this issue.)
Smoking  and Alcohol

Cigarette smoking creates toxic loads that use up vitamin C levels in the blood of smokers.  In fact, cigarette smoking depletes vitamin C levels so much that in 1989 the National Research Council revised the smoker's recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin C, raising it from 60 milligrams — the RDA for the general population — to 100 mg.  However, research since 1989 suggests that the revised RDA for this vitamin still falls far short for smokers.  It is recommended that you stop smoking if you intend to undertake the Pauling therapy for heart disease prevention or reversal.

Alcohol consumption also depletes the body of vitamin C because it introduces toxins into the liver that vitamin C must rid the body of.  When intake is below the levels recommended by Pauling to begin with, there is little to no vitamin C left for collagen synthesis to supply the body's vast demand for it, and the cardiovascular system is among the first to deterioriate.  It is recommended that you stop drinking if you intend to undertake the Pauling therapy for heart disease prevention or reversal.

Certain medications are known to deplete vitamin C as well including anti-depressants, analgesics, anti-inflammatories, oral contraceptives, anti-coagulants and sulfa drugs. Prolonged physical and mental stress can also deplete the body of vitamin C:
Dental Toxicity  


Root canals and heavy metal amalgams create toxic loads that deplete vitamin C levels in the blood and greater amounts of vitamin C must be taken.  Cardiologist Thomas Levy, M.D., J.D., and dentist Hal Huggins, D.D.S., believe that all root canals eventually become toxic and drain vitamin C levels in the body.  Levy and Huggins have written a book about dental toxicity entitled, Uninformed Consent:  The Hidden Dangers in Dental Care.  Levy stresses that unless this toxicity is removed, vitamin C supplements are far less effective.  In the following discussion Dr. Levy compares taking vitamin C in these instances to fighting a 'stream' of toxicity with a vitamin 'blow dryer:
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